Part II: To​ ​what​ ​extent​ ​is​ ​traditional​ ​methods​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​relevant​ ​to​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​in Hong​ ​Kong​ ​and​ ​Spain​ ​?

Perspective​ ​A

Oxford​ ​dictionary​ ​defines​ ​rote​ ​learning​ ​as​ ​“the​ ​process​ ​of​ ​learning​ ​something​ ​by repeating​ ​it​ ​until​ ​you​ ​remember​ ​it​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​by​ ​understanding​ ​the​ ​meaning​ ​of​ ​it”​ ​.​ ​In​ ​rote learning​ ​there​ ​are​ ​several​ ​advantages.The​ ​teaching​ ​style​ ​is​ ​teacher​ ​driven​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​being led​ ​by​ ​the​ ​students’​ ​questions.​ ​During​ ​the​ ​class​ ​students​ ​are​ ​more​ ​passive​ ​in​ ​learning​ ​due​ ​to the​ ​teaching​ ​style,​ ​the​ ​teacher​ ​feeds​ ​learners​ ​with​ ​information​ ​which​ ​requires​ ​to​ ​think​ ​and understand​ ​less.​ ​This​ ​type​ ​of​ ​learning​ ​gives​ ​quick​ ​results​ ​and​ ​it​ ​is​ ​tested​ ​by​ ​immediate assessments.​ ​According​ ​to​ ​the​ ​book​ ​called​ ​“Improve​ ​Exam​ ​Results:​ ​Tested​ ​Technique​ ​for Passing​ ​Exams​ ​or​ ​Tests​ ​By​ ​Dr.​ ​Subhash​ ​Thaker​ ​affirms​ ​that​ ​“​ ​rote​ ​learning​ ​can​ ​be​ ​observed in​ ​preparing​ ​quickly​ ​for​ ​exams,​ ​a​ ​technique​ ​which​ ​may​ ​be​ ​colloquially​ ​referred​ ​to​ ​as “​cramming​”.​ ​An​ ​example​ ​is​ ​when​ ​a​ ​someone​ ​is​ ​required​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​the​ ​script​ ​for​ ​a​ ​play​ ​when​ ​it must​ ​be​ ​performed,​ ​this​ ​type​ ​of​ ​learning​ ​is​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​that​ ​the​ ​brain​ ​does​ ​not​ ​keep​ ​the information​ ​for​ ​long​ ​term-memory​ ​because​ ​the​ ​topic​ ​which​ ​the​ ​student​ ​is​ ​learning​ ​is​ ​not connected​ ​with​ ​meaningful​ ​and​ ​real​ ​life​ ​situations.​ ​A​ ​second​ ​great​ ​example​ ​of​ ​this knowledge​ ​is​ ​when​ ​a​ ​student​ ​need​ ​to​ ​memorise​ ​the​ ​multiplication​ ​and​ ​periodic​ ​table​ ​in​ ​order to​ ​remember​ ​the​ ​sequences​ ​and​ ​the​ ​symbols.

Rote learning is based on a traditional style, and goes back to the original behaviourist theory which is learned through operant and classical conditions. For example, in primary education the teachers gives rewards to those students who behave correctly, this means respect between each other, raising the hands when someone wants to talk, being quiet in class, etc. Sometimes, teachers also use conditioning to punish their students through positive and negative reinforcements. A students environment plays a big role influencing on their learnt behaviour this is an example of traditional education in Spain.

Perspective​ ​B:

According​ ​to​ ​Dictionary.com​ ​inquiry​ ​learning​ ​is​ ​defined​ ​as​ ​“the​ ​act​ ​of​ ​inquiring​ ​or​ ​of seeking​ ​information​ ​by​ ​questioning;​ ​interrogation.”​ ​It​ ​helps​ ​the​ ​students​ ​to​ ​be​ ​part​ ​of​ ​their own​ ​learning.​ ​Also,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​helping​ ​the​ ​students​ ​to​ ​develop​ ​their​ ​critical​ ​thinking​ ​and​ ​increase their​ ​creativity.​ ​Inquiry​ ​allows​ ​the​ ​students​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​subjects​ ​or​ ​topics​ ​in​ ​depth​ ​on​ ​the environment​ ​where​ ​the​ ​learners​ ​can​ ​feel​ ​comfortable​ ​to​ ​share​ ​ideas.​ ​When​ ​the​ ​topics​ ​are related​ ​to​ ​real​ ​life​ ​situation​ ​this​ ​encourage​ ​and​ ​motivated​ ​students​ ​to​ ​be​ ​more​ ​interested​ ​in​ ​a topic​ ​which​ ​it​ ​makes​ ​the​ ​learning​ ​much​ ​more​ ​easier.​ ​In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​make​ ​the​ ​students​ ​think, teachers​ ​ask​ ​specific​ ​questions​ ​such​ ​as​ ​“What​ ​do​ ​you​ ​know​ ​about…?​ ​“What​ ​questions​ ​do​ ​you have​ ​about…”​ ​“What​ ​would​ ​you​ ​like​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​more​ ​about?​ ​Why?​ ​(Wilson​ ​&​ ​Win​ ​Jan,​ ​2009).

Students​ ​are​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​retain​ ​information​ ​if​ ​it​ ​is​ ​learnt​ ​through​ ​taking​ ​ownership after​ ​their​ ​own​ ​learning,​ ​they​ ​develop​ ​a​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​responsibility​ ​and​ ​curiosity​ ​based​ ​on research​ ​of​ ​a​ ​topic.​ ​Students​ ​learn​ ​best​ ​when​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​is​ ​meaningful,​ ​this​ ​means​ ​that​ ​it​ ​is related​ ​to​ ​their​ ​experiences​ ​and​ ​it​ ​is​ ​more​ ​fun​ ​to​ ​learn.​ ​Also,​ ​inquiry​ ​allows​ ​collaboration​ ​to the​ ​students​ ​which​ ​is​ ​teamwork.​ ​Collaboration​ ​is​ ​important​ ​on​ ​inquiry​ ​based​ ​learning​ ​because students​ ​can​ ​teach​ ​and​ ​learn​ ​from​ ​others​ ​through​ ​communication,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​“Helps​ ​develop deeper​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​subjects”​ ​(Youthlearn,​ ​2017). In​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​Century​ ​learners,​ ​teachers​ ​build​ ​toward​ ​student-driven​ ​inquiry​ ​by​ ​helping their​ ​students​ ​to​ ​solve​ ​problems​ ​by​ ​expanding​ ​their​ ​questions​ ​with​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​classes.Students expand​ ​four​ ​main​ ​generic​ ​skills​ ​like​ ​research,​ ​thinking,​ ​analysis,​ ​and​ ​social​ ​skills.​ ​This​ ​style of​ ​teaching​ ​empower​ ​students​ ​to​ ​ask​ ​questions,​ ​clarify​ ​different​ ​issues,​ ​values​ ​and​ ​attitudes through​ ​their​ ​understanding.Teachers​ ​are​ ​aware​ ​that​ ​each​ ​student​ ​has​ ​an​ ​individual​ ​learning styles​ ​depending​ ​on​ ​their​ ​needs,​ ​abilities,​ ​values.​ ​During​ ​the​ ​learning​ ​teachers​ ​try​ ​to​ ​keep students​ ​interested​ ​on​ ​the​ ​task​ ​so​ ​they​ ​are​ ​motivate​ ​to​ ​do​ ​work.​ ​Also,​ ​teachers​ ​are​ ​flexible​ ​of the​ ​students’​ ​interests​ ​(not​ ​everyone​ ​interest​ ​is​ ​the​ ​same).​ ​In​ ​addition,​ ​teachers​ ​challenge​ ​their students​ ​to​ ​get​ ​a​ ​better​ ​understanding​ ​by​ ​exploring​ ​a​ ​range​ ​of​ ​perspectives​ ​and​ ​the​ ​world​ ​such as​ ​culture,​ ​technology,​ ​music,​ ​etc.


Quote: “Learn to value yourself, which means: fight for your happiness.” __ Ayn Rand

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Part 1: To​ ​what​ ​extent​ ​is​ ​traditional​ ​methods​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​relevant​ ​to​ ​the 21st​ ​century​ ​in Hong​ ​Kong​ ​and​ ​Spain​ ​?

According​ ​to​ ​Dictionary.​ ​com​ ​education​ ​is​ ​defined​ ​as​ ​“​ ​the​ ​act​ ​or​ ​process​ ​of​ ​imparting or​ ​acquiring​ ​general​ ​knowledge,​ ​developing​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​of​ ​reasoning​ ​and​ ​judgment,​ ​and generally​ ​of​ ​preparing​ ​oneself​ ​or​ ​others​ ​intellectually​ ​for​ ​mature​ ​life.”​ ​​​In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​develop students​ ​learning​ ​teachers​ ​drive​ ​the​ ​process​ ​of​ ​education​ ​through​ ​literacy,​ ​mathematics, science,​ ​history,​ ​and​ ​arts.​ ​In​ ​this​ ​investigation​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​two​ ​main​ ​pedagogies​ ​which one​ ​is​ ​a​ ​traditional​ ​method​ ​​​such​ ​as​ ​rote​ ​learning​ ​and​ ​the​ ​other​ ​is​ ​inquiry​ ​based.​ ​The​ ​aim​ ​of this​ ​investigation​ ​is​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​two​ ​teaching​ ​methodologies​ ​by​ ​comparing​ ​and contrasting​ ​each​ ​perspective.​ ​This​ ​has​ ​been​ ​investigated​ ​through​ ​research​ ​and​ ​work experience​ ​through​ ​a​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​educational​ ​setting.

Overall, this project was to recognise the importance of both teaching styles based in Spain and Hong Kong, and how they changed within the 21st century preparing students for the 21st century world. Traditional teaching is still relevant to our current time as a stepping stone to inquiry based learning. With basic knowledge taught, rote teaching provides students with background information to develop their critical thinking skill through inquiry.

Teaching methods

Ethical​ ​Issue

The​ ​introduction​ ​of​ ​technology​ ​in​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​has​ ​advanced​ ​education​ ​in​ ​many ways​ ​such​ ​as​ ​communication,​ ​teaching​ ​and​ ​learning.​ ​Today’s​ ​society​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​creativity, problem​ ​solving,​ ​innovation,​ ​cultural​ ​awareness,​ ​exploration,​ ​leadership,​ ​etc.​ ​These​ ​are​ ​the necessary​ ​skills​ ​to​ ​prepare​ ​students​ ​in​ ​the​ ​future.​​ ​​According​ ​to​ ​the​ ​video​ ​by​ ​EF​ ​Education first​ ​(international​ ​education)​ ​46%​ ​of​ ​teachers​ ​say​ ​their​ ​homework​ ​requires​ ​technology,​ ​and 94%​ ​of​ ​students​ ​say​ ​they​ ​use​ ​technology​ ​to​ ​do​ ​homework”.

In​ ​order​ ​for​ ​students​ ​to​ ​success​ ​in​ ​future​ ​learnings,​ ​schools​ ​should​ ​provide​ ​academic studies​ ​at​ ​higher​ ​education​ ​using​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​key​ ​subjects​ ​like​ ​government​ ​and​ ​civics, arts,​ ​economics,mathematics,​ ​international​ ​languages​ ​(​ ​eg.​ ​English​ ​),​ ​health​ ​and​ ​science.​ ​This way,​ ​it​ ​will​ ​prepare​ ​students​ ​for​ ​complex​ ​life​ ​and​ ​work​ ​environments​ ​nowadays​ ​and​ ​future lifestyles.​ ​In​ ​addition,​ ​students​ ​must​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​access​ ​to​ ​quick​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​technology​ ​by using​ ​literacy​ ​such​ ​as​ ​media,​ ​ICT,​ ​and​ ​information.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​essential​ ​for​ ​students​ ​to​ ​be​ ​focus​ ​on 4 creativity,​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​thinking,​ ​communication​ ​for​ ​future​ ​careers​ ​to​ ​be​ ​open​ ​and​ ​repons​ ​to new​ ​and​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​perspectives,​ ​and​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​limits​ ​of​ ​real​ ​globe​ ​by​ ​adopting​ ​new concepts.​ ​In​ ​2002​ ​there​ ​were​ ​several​ ​jobs​ ​that​ ​didn’t​ ​even​ ​exist​ ​yet,​ ​for​ ​example​ ​social​ ​media strategist,​ ​Elder​ ​care​ ​Coordinator,​ ​telework​ ​manager,​ ​app​ ​developers​ ​etc.

Preparing​ ​students​ ​for​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​means​ ​to​ ​move​ ​forward​ ​along​ ​with​ ​the advantages​ ​of​ ​technology.​ ​Therefore,​ ​the​ ​world​ ​of​ ​education​ ​won’t​ ​fall​ ​behind.​ ​Teachers​ ​in the​ ​21st​ ​are​ ​required​ ​to​ ​plays​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​roles​ ​for​ ​instance​ ​they​ ​need​ ​to​ ​be​ ​a​ ​mentor,​ ​motivators, and​ ​help​ ​the​ ​students​ ​to​ ​connect​ ​real​ ​life​ ​situation​ ​for​ ​problem​ ​solving.​ ​Technology​ ​in​ ​the 21st​ ​century​ ​is​ ​influencing​ ​education​ ​drastically.​ ​Both​ ​traditional​ ​school​ ​and​ ​inquiry​ ​based schools​ ​are​ ​developing​ ​their​ ​curriculum​ ​as​ ​the​ ​advancement​ ​of​ ​technology​ ​continues.​ ​As​ ​21st century​ ​learners​ ​students​ ​should​ ​be​ ​encouraged​ ​to​ ​develop​ ​creativity,​ ​think​ ​critically​ ​and know​ ​how​ ​to​ ​use​ ​technology​ ​efficiently​ ​as​ ​new​ ​jobs​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​come​ ​up​ ​in​ ​the​ ​future.

This​ ​issue​ ​has​ ​an​ ​ethical​ ​concern​ ​because​ ​not​ ​all​ ​students​ ​have​ ​the​ ​same​ ​opportunity. IB/​ ​Inquiry​ ​based​ ​curriculum​ ​are​ ​usually​ ​at​ ​private​ ​schools,​ ​which​ ​require​ ​a​ ​certain socioeconomic​ ​level​ ​of​ ​students.​ ​Therefore,​ ​not​ ​all​ ​students​ ​have​ ​the​ ​same​ ​opportunities.

Students​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​having​ ​balance​ ​between​ ​inquiry​ ​and​ ​route​ ​learning. eliminating​ ​rote​ ​learning​ ​and​ ​only​ ​using​ ​inquiry​ ​based​ ​learning​ ​in​ ​the​ ​21st​ ​century​ ​in​ ​relation to​ ​the​ ​ethical​ ​dimensions​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​methods,​ ​by​ ​not​ ​catering​ ​to​ ​all​ ​students​ ​learning​ ​needs. On​ ​the​ ​other​ ​hand,​ ​removing​ ​inquiry​ ​based​ ​learning​ ​deprives​ ​students​ ​from​ ​developing problem​ ​solving​ ​skills,​ ​thinking,​ ​and​ ​creativity.

Quote: ““Those who know, do. Those that understand, teach.” __ Aristotle